Comparative analysis of learning gains and affective states in face-to-face versus online learning
As pointed out by Godwin-Jones (2018), "evidence is accumulating that a major shift is underway in the ways that second language (L2) development is taking place. Increasingly, especially among young people, that process is occurring outside of institutional settings, predominately through the use of online networks and media" (p.8). As this innovation of the web has created unique opportunities allowing individuals to enhance their knowledge on practically any subject from any location, sometimes even cost free, the question on many educators’ minds must be whether or not this new wave of self-learning and self-achievement will eventually have the ability to completely replace traditional modes of learning (Zhang, Zhao, Zhou & Nunamaker, 2004).
The purpose of this study was to assess whether non-formal online context or face-to-face context impacted phrasal verb learning outcomes and affective states for L2 English learners. To investigate this question, a pre-test, post-test, delayed post-test design was implemented in a multiple case study using 4 students. Online students were sent links to a website where they were asked to watch one of 5 instructor-produced videos per day and complete exercises. Face-to-face students were taught in a one-on-one tutoring style before completing exercises. In addition, a questionnaire assessing engagement and satisfaction with each treatment type was administered. Interviews were also conducted to enhance the understanding of variations in scores and of the participants’ experiences in each context. The results indicate that similar learning outcomes can be produced in a shorter period of time in the online environment.